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Entities

HTML Entities Some characters are reserved in HTML.
If you use the less than or greater than signs in your text, the browser might mix them with tags.
Character entities are used to display reserved characters in HTML.
A character entity looks like this:


Using Emojis

Emojis are characters from the UTF-8 character set: πŸ˜„ 😍 πŸ’—
What are Emojis?
Emojis look like images, or icons, but they are not.
They are letters (characters) from the UTF-8 (Unicode) alphabet.
UTF-8 covers almost all of the characters and symbols in the world.
The HTML charset Attribute
To display an HTML page correctly, a web browser must know the character set used in the page.
This is specified in the meta tag: 038618385


What is Multimedia?

Multimedia comes in many different formats. It can be almost anything you can hear or see, like images, music, sound, videos, records, films, animations, and more.
Web pages often contain multimedia elements of different types and formats.
Browser Support
The first web browsers had support for text only, limited to a single font in a single color.
Later came browsers with support for colors, fonts, images, and multimedia!
Multimedia Formats
Multimedia elements (like audio or video) are stored in media files.
The most common way to discover the type of a file, is to look at the file extension.
Multimedia files have formats and different extensions like: .wav, .mp3, .mp4, .mpg, .wmv, and .avi.
Common Video Formats
Videoformats There are many video formats out there.
The MP4, WebM, and Ogg formats are supported by HTML.
The MP4 format is recommended by YouTube.


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CSS Selectors

CSS selectors are used to "find" (or select) the HTML elements you want to style.
We can divide CSS selectors into five categories:
Simple selectors (select elements based on name, id, class)
Combinator selectors (select elements based on a specific relationship between them)
Pseudo-class selectors (select elements based on a certain state)
Pseudo-elements selectors (select and style a part of an element)
Attribute selectors (select elements based on an attribute or attribute value)


Migrating to v4

Bootstrap 4 is a major rewrite of the entire project. The most notable changes are summarized below, followed by more specific changes to relevant components. 038618385


Lifting State Up

Often, several components need to reflect the same changing data. We recommend lifting the shared state up to their closest common ancestor. Let’s see how this works in action.


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Related Content

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HTML Audio The controls attribute adds audio controls, like play, pause, and volume.
The source element allows you to specify alternative audio files which the browser may choose from. The browser will use the first recognized format.
The text between the audio tags will only be displayed in browsers that do not support the audio element.

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JavaScript JavaScript makes HTML pages more dynamic and interactive.

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Bookmarks with ID and Links HTML bookmarks are used to allow readers to jump to specific parts of a Web page.
Bookmarks can be useful if your webpage is very long.
To make a bookmark, you must first create the bookmark, and then add a link to it.
When the link is clicked, the page will scroll to the location with the bookmark.

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Text/Typography Bootstrap 4 uses a default font-size of 16px, and its line-height is 1.5.
The default font-family is "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif.
In addition, all p elements have margin-top: 0 and margin-bottom: 1rem (16px by default).

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Visibility Control the visibility, without modifying the display, of elements with visibility utilities.

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Form Elements This chapter describes all the different HTML form elements.
The input Element
One of the most used form element is the input element.
The input element can be displayed in several ways, depending on the type attribute.